1.    Network interface(Data link) layer
2.    Network layer
3.    Transport layer
4.    Application layer

Network interface layer
    The lowest layer of the TCP/IP model. Its task is to provide access to the transmission physical medium and it differs according to the implementation of the medium.

Network layer
    The network layer provides network addressing, routing and datagram transmission.  Used protocols that will be of interest further regarding DHCP are IP and ARP.

    IP protocol
It is the basic protocol of the network layer and in general the internet as a whole. It sends datagrams, which are independent units that contain information about the destination, source and the sequence number of the datagram. The sequence number is used for message reconstruction, since the delivery order of the datagrams might not be the same as their order in the message and delivery reliability isn't guaranteed at all.
IP protocol versions:
"    IP v4 - 32 bit addresses. Provides approximately 4 billion unique addresses which aren't sufficient at present times.
"    IP v6 - 128 bit addresses. The transition to v6 will bring (is bringing) higher security, QoS, packet segmentation and many more IP addresses. (the transition from IP v4 to IP v6 must be supported by the system provider)

ARP protocol
    The ARP abbreviation stands for Address Resolution Protocol. This protocol is used to find the physical address (MAC) based on a known IP address. If required ARP sends information concerning the wanted address to all the stations in the network - Broadcast. The stations consequently answer with a message containing their MAC. If the wanted device/station is outside the node/segment, the appropriate router will answer instead of it.

Transport layer
    The transport layer is implemented only in terminal devices and it adjusts the behavior of the network according to the requirements of the device/application.

Application layer
    The application layer is composed of programs that use net services to fulfill the needs of users. Examples of specific protocols are for instance FTP, DNS and DHCP.
    Application protocols use TCP, UDP or both services at the same time. So called ports are used to differentiate between application protocols, they represent a type of label of the application. It is possible to change the ports in the settings of the service, but each service has a default port that isn't changed for most services and is used as an unwritten standard.

"    FTP = 21
"    DNS = 53
"    DHCP = 67 + 68

The traditional approach to implementing an intranet is to purchase a software package, modify it for your needs, and install it on your system.

Over the past few years, another option has grown in popularity – the implementation of a web-based solution.

As you consider the choice between installed software and a web-based intranet, here are some considerations:

1. The most important requirement of any intranet is that everyone uses it.

To assure broad-based participation, the intranet must be easy to implement, simple to use, cost-effective to maintain, and offer each individual user the power to post, access and use content in a way that serves their specific needs. In short, the intranet must have value to everyone.

Web-based intranets are designed around this concept. The interface and navigation are consistent with their use of the web – an environment in which they feel in control, using familiar tools.

In contrast, the business world is littered with countless elegant and feature-rich soft-ware based intranets that have failed. Why? Because they represented an alien environment into which the user was expected to venture. Few employees had the time or the interest (or courage) to enter, rendering the intranet impotent, with the powerful tools unused.

This is the plight of traditional, out-of-the-box software solutions. Unlike web-based intranets, they force users into a constrained environment requiring in-depth training, built around rules designed for the group, rather than the individual.

2. Software intranets have unpredictable costs: in time, attention and money.

Software based solutions require extensive internal support. The ongoing expense in both staff time and money takes the focus of your IT group away from mission-critical tasks.

System integration, Implementation, maintenance, technology upgrades, training and user support are all on-going tasks that represent a significant, recurring investment. The cost can be substantial, far exceeding your initial license cost and monthly fee.

3. Web-based intranets offer a predictable cost and cutting-edge technology.

Most web-based solutions offer a fixed monthly fee that covers all maintenance, technology upgrades, training and user support. The costs are predictable, the technology evolutionary, and it's all done with minimal involvement of your IT staff.

It's for these reasons that companies needing broad-based participation in a changing environment are choosing web-based intranets over traditional software solutions.

You must have seen them. Web addresses like http://tinyurl.com/2gj2z3 which, when you click on them, take you to another web page. Why use them? Are there any risks in using them?

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It's the posh technical term for a web address. Web addresses normally take the form http://www.somesite.com/somepage.html, which is not too much of a problem. But some site names can get very long, and so can page names. The increased use of database-driven sites mean that URLs can get very long indeed, and most of them is computer gobbledygook. They are impossible to type in, if you are reading them in a print article, and often get corrupted by word-wrapping when they appear in an email or blog posting.

An URL shortener is a web service that takes a long address that's hard to type, and turns it into a short one. You should use them in articles for print publication, classified ads, emails, blog and forum postings, anywhere there is a danger that the full address may be corrupted, or that someone may need to type the address into a browser manually.

But there is a danger in using short URLs that may make people afraid to use them. The short address disguises the real destination. This makes it easy for somebody to post an innocent looking message encouraging people to click on a link that takes them to a site which infects their computer with spyware, or something equally undesirable.

Some URL shortening services have tried to address this problem. The most well-known service, TinyURL.com, has an optional preview page that shows you the target address before you go there. But you have to know to type "preview" in front of the address, or visit the site and set it as a permanent option. Those who don't know about this are still vulnerable to deception.

A safe URL shortener would not allow the creation of links to undesirable sites. It would also always display a preview page, so the user always sees where the link is taking them before they go there. xaddr.com uses Internet blacklists to prevent its use to disguise sites that are advertised by spam. Its preview page offers a link to McAfee's Site Advisor, which can be used to check the safety of the destination.

Next time you need to write a long web address, use an URL shortener. But to encourage confidence that no harm will come from clicking the link, pick a safe one.
To the information security professional wireless networking may be thought of as a four letter word to be avoided at all costs. Regardless of the security implication wireless networking can provide cost efficiency, and because of that wireless technologies are here to stay. While many in the profession believe that wireless networks can be easily compromised, this class will show how the appropriate wireless architecture with the proper security controls can make your wireless network as secure as any other remote access point into your network.

In this three day, wireless security workshop, we will examine the cutting edge of wireless technologies. The purpose of the course is to give you a full understanding of what wireless (802.11) networks are, how they work, how people find them and exploit them, and how they can be secured. This hands-on course is based on real world examples, solutions, and deployments. In this course we will actually set up and use wireless networks, determine the tools to uncover wireless networks, and also look at how to defeat the attempts to secure wireless networks.

Course Completion
Upon the completion of our CISM course, students will have:

Constructed a wireless network architecture
Install and configure 802.1x authentication using Microsoft Windows IAS and Server 2000
Install a wireless access point
Distinguish between 802.11x standards
Defeat Wired Equivalent Privacy
Key Take Aways:

An understanding of wireless networks
A CD of common tools and documentation
An ability to search the internet for updates and more information on wireless networks
Detail of Course Content The following topics will be covered:

Wireless History
Radio Frequency (RF) Fundamentals
WLAN Infrastructure
802.11 Network Architecture
802.1X Authentication
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)/(LEAP)/(PEAP)
Detection Platforms
WLAN Discovery Tools
Wireless Sniffers
Conventional Detection
Exploiting WLANs
Securing WLANs
Other Wireless Options
Legal Issues including GLBA and ISO-17799


The idea of reading email while lounging by the pool, text or instant messaging while doing the laundry, or lounging in the Jacuzzi listening to your MP3 collection is appealing to us all.

Unfortunately, many, or even most, wireless units don't come with security features already functioning. This may not seem like a big issue to someone who is simply setting up a home network, but there are a number of potential problems you should consider.

The most serious problem is the increase in identity theft. If your network is unsecured, the personal data on your wireless electronic equipment is also unsecured. The order you just placed for a book at Amazon may have given your contact and payment information to an unscrupulous hacker!

Nearly every town in which "WiFi" is common will have "War Drivers" and "War Chalkers" at work. These are people who walk or drive around town with wireless equipment, searching for unsecured networks. The "Chalkers" then live up their name, marking curbs and other public items with chalk so that others can more easily find and exploit your network.

Not all "War Drivers" are hackers, of course. Many just want to use your network for free, but the risk is high if you don't learn how to protect yourself. You can usually find quite a bit of free information as to how to secure your network at the website of your router's manufacturer, or by doing a search in a search engine for a phrase like "secure home wireless."

Beyond the truly malicious, there are also your neighbors who may find your network by accident and enjoy nosing into your activities and using your Internet access at will, slowing down your network speed in the process.

Even many businesses use cheap, home-use quality equipment for their company networks. With the poor security often found on small business networks, anyone with a basic knowledge of wireless can access sensitive company and customer data.

If you are unable to secure your network yourself, there are many service companies who will do it for you. A search of your local yellow pages or an inquiry at your neighborhood computer store should yield professional help and get your private data private again

Link Load Balancing evens out critical resources on data networks with unpredictable requests issued to a server. For example, a web site with heavy traffic may employ two, three or more servers in a link load balancing program. The link load balancing routines enable a network to “juggle” more traffic that otherwise possible If one server is overwhelmed, the link load balancing scheme forwards them to a different server with extra capacity.

Another aspect to link load balancing concerns the communications channels themselves. In this case the “juggling act” is meant to better distribute processing and communications demands more equitably across the network so that no single a computer is overwhelmed by the demand.
Link Load Balancing - Key Features & Benefits First and foremost is “availability” - 24/7 Application Availability for complete IP Application access. Local and Global Service providers rely on redundancy and link load balancing between servers, WSD units and distributed sites for complete server continuity across global networks

Network Bottlenecks - Link Load Balancing Network managers are constantly seeking new solutions for eliminating bottlenecks and latencies for the fastest performance of all networked applications and web-enabled transactions. The idea link load balancing technology combines both unlimited application scalability with flexible traffic distribution management of data centers and server farms.

Network Security - Link Load Balancing Link load balancing is a key element in the overall network Intrusion Prevention effort. Expert Link Load Balancing guards the network against internal and external attacks such as viruses, worms, Trojans, anti-scanning and protocol anomalies. Above all hovers the ultimate link load balancing challenge and network threat – DOS - Denial of Service.

Remember the song, “Take a load off Annie” Just listening to it makes you feel nice and relaxed… For maximum performance and 100 percent uptime, networks use link load balancing to even out resource use throughout the network.
Navino launched its search engine gateway service recently. For most of the Internet surfers, search engine gateway is a pretty new concept compared with meta search engine or multi search engine. Put it in simple, it is a web service, which can let you search the best information from the best content providers in one website.

When we try to find information everyday, most of us might go to Google.com. Yes, it's true. Most of the time, Google works well. But does Google return the best information? I guess you would agree that the search engine's ranking algorithm could only give a good answer, but not the best. Well, you may ask, where can I get the BEST? The best weather information? The best book information? The best price for your favorite mp3 player? The short answer is from the brain, from the hand picked information. Therefore, Navino's editors and their users give out that the best weather website is weather.com, the best book website is amazon.com and the best price information is froogle.

Besides best hand picked information resources, Navino also provide the search engine gateway technology. Using this technology, you can search all the best website at Navino. All you need to do is to add a unique search name before your searching keywords.

For example, if you want to search New York's weather, you can search with ‘weather New York' and you will be forwarded to weather.com with the keyword ‘New York'. If you want to search finance books, you can search with ‘book finance' and you will be forwarded to amazon.com with the keyword ‘finance'. If you want to search the best price for your favorite mp3 player, you can search with ‘price mp3 player' and you will be forwarded to froogle with the keyword ‘mp3 player'.

Navino search engine gateway is very convenient for your everyday web surfing. Besides that, Navino also provides its users to customize their own search engine gateway and allows its users to recommend search names for public use.

With everything becoming available wireless these days a great innovation is the wireless media router. What is a wireless media router? It’s a router that allows the transmission of signals from the router to anywhere in the house that has a receiver.

Wireless routers are becoming more and more popular. They have many uses, one of which is viewing pictures and movies from your computer on your television. This comes in very handy when you have media files that you can’t burn on CD or cannot be played on your DVD player.

A second use would be to transmit paid television. For example if you paid for HBO usually you would be able to only view it on one nominated television. With the wireless media router you can send the signal you television is receiving, HBO, to any other television in the house. You can even change the channel from the remote television while viewing.

The third use would be watching television at a location where an antenna is not available. This means no more long cables leading from room to room just to be able to watch television.

Depending on the amount of receivers you have you can receive the signal from multiple televisions. How does it work? The receivers are connected to the remote televisions. The router takes the signal from the source television and distributes it to the remote televisions by way of the receiver. On the remote television a certain channel is dedicated to this receiver meaning you can watch independent television, and easily switch the channel to the signal being received from the wireless router.

This also makes running your entertainment room a breeze. The receiver can also be hooked up-to a projector making it easy to view anything you wish. This means you will not need to purchase separate DVD players VCR’s for every room.
Home security is an important issue for any person. A person’s home is their castle and they want to feel safe and secure. There are several security measures that can be implemented to ensure security such as alarms but one that ensures peace of mind is a wireless home security camera package.

What’s need in the package is a camera to fit either just outside the front or back door that transmits a wireless signal. The best one to buy would be one that has night vision to ensure you can see everything at night. The second would be a receiver. Some receivers have screens so you can watch what’s going on no matter where you are and others need to be connected to a computer or television to see the transmission.

If connected to a computer or television the live feed from the camera can be directly recorded to a hard drive or a cassette or DVD depending on which is convenient. Several cameras can be implemented to get several signals meaning more coverage of the home and the surrounding area.

These wireless home security packages are common and can be purchased at most electronics stores. They are on the expensive side but are worth the purchase for the kind of technology it has. With almost everything becoming wireless these days it was only a matter of time until cameras became wireless also.

Most people need some sort of security measure in place, not for protection, but for peace of mind that they are safe in their home. Although there are several other measures that can be implemented in terms of security, the wireless home security camera is a valuable tool for keeping an eye on things at all times. It will complement any other security measure you have in place and will not disappoint.

Computes and Internet are the key to the Information world we live in. People talk less and chat more on the Internet. Online games are becoming more popular than anybody could ever imagine. Chat rooms are always crowded and emails are the preferred method of sending messages. Messengers are becoming the preferred method of talking across the globe. The earth has gone flat no doubt.

Computers, programming, searches, Internet, downloads, blogging, websites, all these words are becoming so common that no body can imagine that it all started not many years back. Today across all the ages, this is equally popular. Latest innovations are appearing everyday and companies are minting money online. All this was never predicted but this has become a reality.

Is people to people contact is suffering because of Internet? Are we searching for unnecessary information and over loading ourselves? When so much information was not available to us, we could live, isn’t it? Then why do we search for any and everything online? Does that make our life better? In the earlier days, people took time to write letters to each other. Now it is sending a mail, which somehow does not have that personal touch. Language is also suffering because of the new lingo of the cyber world.

I sometime imagine of people living in a peaceful area away from our civilization. Give them computers and connect them with Internet. Will they not lose all the peace they had before?

It's today trend that hosting provider is offering these marketing credits for new customer that joined their hosting plan. After you sign up, and the marketing credit coupon code will be made available from your hosting control panel. Next, you will need to setup a new account with those marketing network and apply the code to redeem the free credits.

Normally, people that already have the account with those marketing network, will just ignore the new coupon code they receive. But some smart folks, will get a new account setup with google adwords and apply the coupon and get the free marketing money. We not talking small money here. Some hosting offering adwords credits up to $50 or even $75 dollars. And this money can be used to exchange you hundreds of website visitors and converted into sales. It’s the model for your website promotion.

Second options is to sell off those coupon code that you have. And yes, its very common thing we seen in ebay where people auction off their coupon code. Alternative market place will be web hosting forums or webmaster forums. Why wasting the ‘money’, lets convert it into cash.

Currently the web hosting provider that offering the best marketing credits are ixwebhosting with up to $175 marketing credits, and midphase with $150 marketing credits. When you getting those coupon code, make sure you make some good cash with it.

Friends birthdays are always very exciting. If the friend is a very close friend, you may begin making plans to select the gift many days in advance. A good friend is rare and his/her birthday will come only once in a year. Sharing friends birthday is very joyous occasion for all of us. In this article you will get tips about how to get free birthday ecards for your friends.

Free birthday ecards- will you get good ecards free? Everything that is good is getting charged on the Internet. How can one get free birthday ecards that look good? Yes, you can. Some of the free birthday ecards look much better than paid. Please do not keep this thought in mind that what is good must cost.

Avoid ecards from websites that give free trial for few days and after that will be asking for money. Look for a ecard website that will offer the friends birthday ecard free for ever.

Make friends happy- the ecard should make your friend feel good. Your friend should feel happy that you spent sometime to select ecards for them. These are quick tips to do that. Avoid every other type other than flash ecards. Do not take very large or very small size. Chose bright colors. The animation should be attractive and the text heart warming. Many of us are worried about flash players. Do not worry. Most of the users have flash players installed on their computers now.

Make friends happy with free birthday ecards. Your friendship will become strong with small steps. Take those small steps and watch for the results.

Innovation is the key to growth. As in other fields, the screensaver designers are constantly working to make better and well packaged screensavers. The latest to hit the Internet are Love Screensavers with flowers as the main theme.

Flowers are the main theme - All these screensavers have lovely flowers as the main theme. That is why they are called Love Flower Screensavers. Flowers can evoke the feeling of love without any other addition. In these Flower Screensavers, love has been as added as a theme by introducing hearts and romantic text. That gives a unique effect to these screensavers.

Download flower screensavers and send them - screensavers are recommended for downloading. in this case I would recommend that you send as many as you can to your sweetheart as the message of love in place of ecards. Everybody sends ecards. Why not surprise your darling with love screensavers, which he/she will be delighted to watch.

Download care for love flower screensavers - take few elementary precautions while downloading these screensavers and sending them to your darling. The screensaver should be free of adware and spyware. Download the flower screensavers from a secure website that guarantees downloads free of adware and spyware.

Adware and spyware can slow down your computer. Many free flower screensavers come with lovely music. Chose the ones with music. Avoid downloads of very heavy files. The installation and removal should be very quick. Take these basic precautions.

Spend a little time, you will found a solution that will save you lots of time, instead of wasted on screening those spam mails. I had found my best spam protection solution, and it’s a free solution. I am talking about boxtrapper email spam protection.

My web hosting plan with bluehost hosting, are come with boxtrapper email protection. And I can activate it for free. It uses a very effective method to block spam from reaching you. You can add people you know into your ‘white list’, and block spammer emails, or email with certain keyword that you want to blog, eg. Pill, jackpot, drugs, etc.

Simple and effective. That’s what I looking for. If the email sender that is not in your white list sent an email to you, he is require to reply to the verification email. And only once he is verified, the email will reach you. Email bots are not capable to fool this system.

Once I was having an email account that received a spam mail every 5 minutes, and its keep coming in like crazy. It’s frustrated, and you can’t do anything if your email account that not have the boxtrapper feature. Think again, you will need email spam protection for your email. And definitely, not all web hosting are offering this. http://www.bluehostreview.org/bluehost/bluehost-email/ will have more information about email account with bluehost and also boxtrapper features.

A good web hosting must have good email system, and a good email system must have an effective spam protection. That’s what I think.

RAID stands for "Redundant Array of Independent (formerly "Inexpensive") Disks." RAID is a collection of hard drives in a computer that is used for performance enhancement and/or fault tolerance. Windows server versions (Windows NT and 2000 Server, and Windows Server 2003) have built-in support for some levels of RAID, but hardware-based RAID systems provide better performance. The most basic level of RAID uses two hard drives to increase performance, while higher levels store data on two or more drives so that if one fails, the data won't be lost. SCSI drives are usually used in RAID systems. In hardware-based RAID systems, it is common for the drives to be removable; they are kept in a caddy that is accessible through an opening in the case. When one fails, it can easily be replaced. More advanced systems employ hot-swappable drives. These are drives that can be removed and replaced without shutting down the system. Naturally, all this technology is much more expensive than standard PCs, so it is used mainly in business and government situations in which downtime and/or data loss would be catastrophic to the operation of the organization. For more information on RAID, see raidweb.com, and search the Web for more articles; there are many.

For all of us family is very important. We share very deep bond and affinity with our family. Our parents, our siblings and our children are the people who make our world apart from our spouse. How to wish family members on their birthday with free birthday ecards? Let us find out.

Birthdaty ecards for father and mother- please look for subdued colors. Prefer nature as the image background. Try to get free ecards with large font sizes and look for text that is heart warming.

Birthdaty ecards for brother- you grew up with your brothers. You know their color choice better than anybody else. Send ecards that translates your feelings as closely as possible. An ecard written with some text about the childhood spent together will be a good choice.

Birthdaty ecards for sister - do not select very bright colors. Warm colors would be preferable to cool colors, as they look more emotional. Use text that talks about a brother/sisters love for sister. If your sister has any special preference, try to find a card accordingly.

Birthdaty ecards for son and daughter- pour your parental love in the ecard. Let the ecard be very warm looking with text that describes a parents love. Use bright and very cheerful colors. The text should be funny with a message for your childs future.

For every family member, you should select different type of ecards to wish a happy birthday. Your relation with them, age difference and their preference would help you look for the ecard that would make them enjoy your birthday wishes.

How to Surf the Web Anonymously -- Part 1

So you're trying to surf a site like myspace, hotmail or yahoo mail from work or school and its blocked by your school, work or government.  Or maybe you want to go on a site without anyone knowing what your doing.  The simplest way to do it is by using a web proxy.  A proxy is another computer that is like a mask your computer puts on when it connects to the Internet.  It's also a private gateway to blocked sites because the site you are actually surfing is hidden behind the proxy, which is unblocked.  For example, if you go to a web proxy in London and surf the Web, every other computer in the world thinks you are from London!

There are plenty of free web proxy sites that you can use.  The problem is that many of the popular ones also get blocked by people at your school, company or government.  However, once you find one that is not blocked, all you do is go to the proxy site, enter the URL you want to browse and click go!  Its that easy.  You can then click on any links in the page you are browsing and you're still anonymous to the outside world.  Just remember that if you go to a proxy and its blocked or no longer works, its no big deal, there are thousands of them.  Just try another one and eventually you will find a web proxy that lets you browse freely and privately.  Part 2 of this article will show where to find more unblocked working proxies that you will ever need!
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I having not one, but two web hosting plan that is priced below $50 dollars per year. Ya, that is $3-$4 dollars per month hosting plan. With php, mysql, host multiple websites, emails, ftp, crons job and many other features that makes these the complete hosting package. And with good customer support, and live chat support as well. Couldn’t belief they are selling it at this incredible low price.

I am talking about hostnine shared hosting and hostican shared hosting. Hostnine shared hosting start with $3.95 and the basic plan will allow multiple domain hosting. Get hostnine coupon from http://www.hostninereview.org/hostnine/hostnine-coupons and will get your 50% saving from your first bill. I paid around $40 dollars for the one year plan. For this august, its giving me 100% uptime and no downtime. I tracked using serviceuptime.com monitoring services.

For the hostican hosting base-host and tera-host, you can get the coupon from http://www.hosticanreview.org/hostican/hostican-coupons and apply it to get $50 dollars discount from your bill. I paid only $45 dollars for the hosting. This hosting is giving me very good uptime as well.

Next time you look for cheap web hosting with quality in it, you will know where to start looking. And I glad I found them as well.

Are you a nature lover? Who is not? All of us love nature, because it makes us feel so peaceful. When we go to natural surroundings, we feel that we have gone to our roots. That is very true, because our ancestors lived with nature and we are the inheritors of that love.

Dont you miss nature during your daily city life? These concrete jungles have no love in them. Dont you miss the innocent love of nature? Now you can find that with nature screensavers. What if I show you nature screensavers with lovely video shots of Beaches, Clouds, Countryside, Deserts, Flowers, Lakes & Seas, Landscapes, Mountains, Panoramas, Plants & Trees, Rivers & Streams, Sunsets and waterfalls? How about getting them on your computer screens, looking alive? Would you not love that?

You can now download Nature Screensavers free on your desktop. There are hundreds of designs in the above subjects for you to choose from. The nature screensavers come with lovely music. Some of these Nature Screensavers have inspiring text. Some others have romantic text. You will love all of them. As they are free and fast downloading files, you can download many and keep the best for your enjoyment and relaxation.

Whenever you feel tired, tense and stressed, click on a screensaver and watch it play on your screen. Watch the swinging palm trees, the lovely trees and the pure water of rivers and streams. Take your pick and enjoy. You deserve this luxury.

Most of you must know about screensavers. A screensaver was normally used to save the screen against prolonged non-use. You can set the time after which the screensaver appears on your screen and protect your screen. Now they are not required for this purpose. But you can still enjoy them whenever you want and relax.

Most of the screensavers are made either with static wallpapers appearing one after other or three-dimensional designs. The latest innovation is live video. In this kind of screensaver, video shots of live objects are taken, edited and made into a revolving film. The film is then given effects and converted to flash. This flash movie, when added to installer, becomes a screensaver.

Now you can view live flowers dancing in the garden on your desktop. With innovation in technology and artistry, the quality of the shot gets enhanced when converted in flash. Installing and uninstalling such screensavers is simple. A click of mouse does that.
Download few screensavers with live flowers on your machines and watch them whenever you are getting bored or tired. Live music accompanies the screensaver adding to the relaxing power. Chose colors that you love. You can also choose flower screensavers with romantic or inspirational text. Bring the beauty of flowers to your desktops and relax with the soothing sight and music.

If you’re having problems getting a CD to work in your computer because it’s scratched, there are some easy solutions. First, try cleaning the CD with a little dish detergent. Use your finger to gently rub the detergent on the CD and coat it real good. Don’t use a cloth, it can make more scratches and defeat your purpose. Rinse it off well with water and try the CD in the drive again. If you are still getting read errors due to the scratches, then it’s time for the unlikely solution: toothpaste. Yep, you read it right. Put a little toothpaste on a Q-tip and polish the scratched area until they disappear or until they can’t get any smoother. Then wash the CD in water. That should hopefully fix it. If not, just retry polishing with toothpaste. If a few cleanings do not solve the problem, then try a metal polish such as Brasso in the same manner as the toothpaste. There is also a solution that involves gently rubbing Vaseline on the CD from the center outward. But I’m of the opinion if it goes that far and the CD still can’t be read, then it’s time to trash it.

Something else to consider: If your CD drive has trouble reading CD’s or DVD’s that aren’t scratched, then you need to clean the drive’s laser lens. You’ll need a CD/DVD-Player Laser-Lens Cleaner for that. They can be purchased at any computer store and even Wal-Mart.

The days when everything was free on the Internet are slowly becoming history. Today if you want something good, you have to pay on the Internet. You can still get beautiful birthday ecards that are free and some times better than paid ecards. Let me tell you how to select them.

Make a quick search for birthday ecards on a good search engine. Click on some websites and read the terms carefully. Are the ecards totally free or it is only for a trial period. Select websites, that offer totally free ecards.

JPG and Flash Birthday ecards-
Do not send JPG ecards. They are one of the earliest designs and the better ones are available only in flash. Use flash ecards of decent size. Do not take very small size. JPG ecards have one advantage that the user need not have flash player on his/her computer. But with popularity of flash designs most of the users are having flash players on their computers.

Design Selection -
Use designs that look decent and are light weight. Ecards filled with many animations look over-crowded and do not look good. Go for subdued designs.

Free Birthday ecards are a boon for Internet users. You save money on buying printed cards, paying for postage and the labor of posting them. Free birthday ecards can be sent with a single click and cost nothing. What more can you ask for in Free Birthday Ecards?

Unix signals are initiated either by running programs, computer administrators, or operators. One example of a signal is the SIGHUP signal, which is sent to the internet to instruct the Internet Daemon, also known as inetd, to repeat reading the Daemon's configuration file.

To interrupt the Daemon's currently running process (ID, or PID), key in the command kill -SIGHUP 4140.

It is also possible to use signals to terminate a currently running process. To end the inetd process entirely, key in the following command: kill 4140. This command will, by default, send a SIGTERM signal. If this command fails, then the SIGKILL command is entered to end this process: kill -9 4140. Since this command cannot be controlled, it is usually not a good idea to utilize it to stop a process. This command does not permit a process to clean up or to end gracefully.

How are Unix Signals Managed?

Every Unix signal results in a default range of effects when used with a Unix program. Computer programmers can opt to code their own applications for a customized response upon the receipt of most signals. The term used to describe these individually designed strings of code is "signal handlers".

Signal handlers are unable to redefine two unique signals. In every situation, SIGKILL is used to end a process. Similarly, SIGSTOP always sends a running application to the background when it is in the foreground.

If you have more than one computer at home, you are probably better off connecting them or networking them together to use the same resources and receive the same internet connection.  A home network is very easy to build.  Here are some tips.

There are two main types of home networks, wired and wireless.  While wired home networks are popular, but they require you to run wires from one computer to another.  You might have to drill holes in a wall or run wire under the carpet. 

If you don’t want cords running all over the place, you can easily get rid of them with a wireless home network.  Wireless home networks are extremely simple to set up.  You only need a wireless router and a wireless networking card for each additional computer you would like to hook up.  Most wireless networks can send and receive data lightning fast at megabytes per second. 

Wireless networks are extremely inexpensive, you can hook up a few computers for less than $200.  The great part of wireless networks is that all computers on the wireless network can use the same internet or other resources such as a scanning machine and printer.  So if you are looking for a great way to share data and resources among your home computer, choose to build a home network.

More information is available at http://www.home-00.info

Do you need to repair your laptop?

When you contemplate repairing your own laptop keep in mind that once you open the casing you could be voiding any and all warranty coverages. A certified repair technician will be able to tell quickly if a laptop has been opened and the internal components tampered with or changed.

Laptop repair isnt always easy. If the laptop isnt under warranty and you dont feel comfortable replacing some of these parts yourself, youll have to find a professional to do it.

If you want to repair a laptop by yourself you should have first of all the disassembly manual, pictures and videos ordered by the manufacturer. Once you have the laptops disassembly manual youll discover that a laptop is made up of numerous delicate and small chips and other technical elements with minute details. If one of these innumerable and delicate technical elements is subjected to malfunctioning, then the whole of the laptop will stop functioning. If a problem is allowed to persist in the laptop, it might even damage and cause dreadful things that might even prove to be permanent. Therefore it is always desirable to treat the laptop with utmost care and pay full attention to repairing any sort of problem in the machine.

Please visit <a href="http://www.800tech.com">800tech.com</a> if you want to know more.

There are still real opportunity to monetize Internet, the most simple and totally non-invasive she offers Mysearchfunds. This is a British company that pays your searches conducted on its search engine. For every query is being paid approximately 0.02 British pounds. There are also well-3 levels of referrals, with the first you'll earn 10%, with the second 5% and the third with 2.5%. There are limits daily searches, and then sbizzarritevi well without problems (but searches sensible, not to be bannati). Remember that statistics are updated after 1 or 2 days, not in real time, so do not worry if you see immediately gains salire.Questo the link to register and begin earning day after day.
How much money received clearly depends upon how much you use the service for your typical day to day Internet searches. Based upon our experience to date we estimate that the average user regularly searching the internet could readily raise in excess of £50 per year.

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I received a very geeky Christmas present this year - Ubuntu! Ubuntu is a linux distribution (Debian I believe) that includes the Gnome desktop, Evolution Groupware and the OpenOffice suite. (I bet my brother would have loved the math formula editor back in the day when he was teaching physics.)

The package has two CDs. The first is a ¡°live cd¡± that sets up a RAM disk (remember those?) and then boots into linux with touching your hard drive! Very creative! This is a great way to show non-technical execs what linux can bring to the table.

The second CD is a bootable install disk, with a character-based installer. I loaded into a Virtual PC machine (refer to this How To from the Ubuntu site) and have been working in the corporate environment for a few days. WSS sites are mostly usable. There is a Citrix client for Linux, so all of the ¡°corporate¡± apps are available.

Being a .Net guy now, there is probably not much more to do. If I had time, then perhaps Mono would be fun to try...

Shure's Music Phone Adapter (MPA) is our favorite iPhone solution, since it lets you use the headphones you're most comfortable with. It has an iPhone-compatible jack at one end and a microphone module with an Answer/End/Pause button and a female 3.5mm audio jack for connecting to your own headphones. We connected the adapter to the Shure SE110 in-ear headphones, whose cabling is modular; the top half is fairly short, so when used with the adapter, the cable is the right length, but the mic lays around your navel. The MPA comes with three different sizes of foam and silicone tips and a carrying pouch. Shure's coated memory-foam tips are the most comfortable on the market, and they stay in your ear securely--especially if you wear the cables over the tops of your ears.

Is your computer performing at the speed it's suppose to be?  Is your computer throwing up odd messages that have no relevance to what you've got installed?

Chances are you haven't been maintaining it the way you should be.  Common problems which users ask over and over again why their computer is slow or why does an application have problems locating certainly necessary files.

Common things to do involve de-fragmenting your computer hard drive and also clearing up temporary files which clog up your folders.

One particular item of administration that people often forget is Registry Cleaning. 

For a more information see my article at www.opinview.com/Fixing_your_Windows_Registry.html
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lsass.exe is part of the security system that comes along with Microsoft Windows. The task of lsass.exe is to verify the validity of users when they log onto the PC.

By ending the lsass process you may encounter some difficulties when using Windows.

However lsass.exe may sometimes be a trojan horse or downloader disguised to look like an innocent process.

The lsass.exe file is located in the System32 folder, or C:\Windows\System32. If it is located anywhere else on the hard drive or computer, it is not a legitimate program and should immediately be deleted or quaratined. You should never delete or tamper with the file if it is located in the system32 directory.

The only way to determine whether the lsass.exe running is legitimate is to run a full scan of the computer.

The third version of the General Public License (GPLv3) has been adopted by 116 open source projects in its first week of operation, according to an overview compiled by software risk management firm Palamida. A further three projects have opted for the Lesser General Public Licence, which offers fewer restrictions than the regular GPLv3.
[Source: LinuxNewsBlog]

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Let us go to a deep forest and watch the thick tress growing there. The small plants dancing with joy near the small waterfalls. In a forest we find the earth smelling fresh and the birds chirping happily. Wild animals begin hunting as taught by nature and the ecology always remains in balance.

Now visit a busy city. What does a big city have? It has tall concrete buildings with no soul. It has automobiles running on the roads polluting the air with abandon with all types of poisonous gases being released in the air. You will also find lot many humans running around under stress trying to reach somewhere to finish their work. Can you think about the contrast between these two lifestyles?

How can city dwellers enjoy the sights of jungle in their office and homes? Download free wallpapers that depict plants and trees. That is the easiest method to live in a city but still enjoy the peace and serenity of forest.

Static desktop wallpapers with plants and tress photographs look beautiful. They can help us reduce lot of stress. Download as many as you can on your desktop. Keep on changing as your mood changes. You will get many with text that is inspiring. You will also get many with romantic text. They will help you forget your tensions and stresses. a great treat to the eyes, such wallpapers are a therapy to fight depression.

Free plants and trees wallpapers cost nothing and help us fight the blues. Why not use them to live a more successful life?

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1.    Make sure that your computer is connected to the router via the Ethernet or a wireless WiFi connection.
2.    Now, in your favorite web browser go to the address: http://www.
3.    Usually in the older versions of Linksys routers, there will only be a password (admin) and no need to input a username. However the recent newer models of the Linksys router have “admin” as both the default username and the password.
4.    Below are a few sample modes and their default usernames and passwords:
A.    Default Usernames Known:
Linksys BEFW11S4: admin
Linksys WRT54G: admin
Linksys Comcast: Comcast
Linksys EtherFast Cable/DSL Ethernet: Administrator
The rest of the Linksys routers: [not required]
B.    Default Passwords Known:
Linksys BEFW11S4: [not required]
Linksys Comcast: 1234
The rest of the Linksys routers: admin

In the case that you forgot your Linksys router password, you can always reset the outer by clicking the reset button at the back or at the bottom of the router.

This season the cast is housed in the Columbia Square Building, a seven-story, 105,000 square foot building at 6121 West Sunset Boulevard at the intersection of North Gower Street in Gower Gulch that formerly served as a CBS broadcast facility in Los Angeles. The building is part of a 125,000 foot complex that takes up an entire city block, which previously housed eight studios and two radio stations, KCBS-TV and KCAL-TV. The complex also included a 1,050 seat auditorium, a restaurant, and a bank. The northeast corner of the complex was used for filming. It is is 23.3 miles from the Venice beach house where The Real World: Los Angeles was filmed. The property was purchased in August 2006 for $66 million USD by Molasky Pacific, LLC, who intend to redevelop it to attract other residential and office tenants.

According to MTV, this season of The Real World will be the first to incorporate environmentally friendly household and lifestyle choices, including a solar-heated swimming pool, energy star appliances, bamboo flooring, recycled glass counters, some sustainable furniture, and energy efficient lighting.

A proxy list is a list of all the working proxy websites. A proxy website is a website which lets you surf anonymously and it allows you to access the websites which have been blocked by a content filter.

How does this work –

A proxy website allows you to enter the URL of the website which you wish to surf and once you’ve entered the URL, the proxy website displays the target website in a special window. In this way, your real IP address, location are not revealed to the website and you can access it even if it is blocked by the network administrator. You can interact with the website in real-time just like the way you would have interacted with it if it was not blocked on your network.

The only known problem associated with the proxy websites is that they’ve a small life as other websites block the proxy websites to avoid anonymous surfing. So, it’s important to maintain a regularly updated proxy list in order to get the information about the working proxy websites.

Hotmail is a free (i.e. advertiser supported) web based e-mail system provided by Microsoft Corporation.The way to change your Hotmail password is to change your Microsoft Passport password.
Changing your Microsoft Passport password will change your Hotmail password, MSN password and MSN Messenger password.
Steps to Change Your Hotmail Password
•    Login to Microsoft Passport
•    Go to the Microsoft Passport Network: Account Services Home page
•    Select the Credentials menu
•    Select Change your password
•    Enter your old Hotmail password
•    Enter your new password
•    Enter your new password again
•    Press <Continue>
•    Enter an alternate e-mail address, if you have one
•    Enter your alternate e-mail address again, if you entered it above
•    Press <Continue>
•    Press <Done>
These steps to change your Hotmail password will only work if you know your <i>current</i> Hotmail password.

ODBC (Open Data Base Connectivity) is a function library which provides a common API (Application Programming Interface) for ODBC compliant database management systems.
ODBC was developed by the SQL Access Group in 1992.
ODBC operates as an industry-standard "shim" between applications which utilize databases and the databases themselves.
If an application is developed using ODBC, the application will be able to store data in any database management system which is equipped with an ODBC driver.
ODBC drivers are often developed in sub-components:
•    An ODBC Driver Manager
•    ODBC Drivers
The application submits ODBC calls to the ODBC driver manager.
The ODBC driver manager selects the appropriate ODBC driver, loads that driver, and sends read or write requests using that driver.
The ODBC driver processes the ODBC function calls, submits the SQL requests to the database, and returns the results to the application.

A Runtime Error is an error that occurs during the execution of a program.
"Runtime Error" is a very generic error message and is usually accompanied by additional information, such as "Runtime Error 6507."
The opposite of a runtime error is a compile time error. Compile time errors occur as a program is being compiled from source code into executable code.
Runtime errors can occur for an inexhaustable number of reasons. These include bugs in the original program, hardware failure, operator error, and resource exhaustion
To properly troubleshoot a runtime error you will need additional information, such as:
•    An error number
•    Where you were in the program with the error occurred
•    What you did just before the error occurred
•    What you say just before and just after the error occured
•    The state of the machine when the error occurred (memory, disk, and cpu usage)

These instruction will assist you in converting the C: partition from FAT32 to NTFS. If you wish to convert another partition instead, just use that drive letter instead of C: while following these instructions.
1.    First, back up your data. The conversion process almost always works flawlessly, but there is no point in taking the risk.
2.    Click the <Start> button.
3.    Click <Run>.
4.    Enter "cmd" into the text field labeled "Open".
5.    Click the <OK> button.
6.    Enter the command "vol c:" to find the volume label for the C: partition.
7.    Enter the command "convert c: /fs:ntfs" to convert the C: partition from FAT32 to NTFS.
8.    When prompted, enter the volume label for the partition.
Our MySpace Countdown Generator lets you create an attractive countdown clock for important events in your life, such as your birthday!

To use our MySpace Countdown Generator:

    * Enter the message you want displayed
    * Set the date of your event
    * Choose colors for your banner
    * Select a skin for your banner
    * Click the button in the lower left corner
    * Copy the HTML source code and paste it into your MySpace page

If you have experienced a Windows "No Audio Device" error, it most likely means that your sound card is not installed properly. Even though other problems can cause this error, an improperly installed sound card is the most common reason. If the audio card isn't properly connected in the motherboard or you do not have an audio controller connected, you will get this error. Also, it is possible that the device you are trying to use is not compatible to the motherboard you are using.
Troubleshooting the most common error
Here are a few steps to take to solve the most common error, an improperly installed card:
You will first need to find your audio controlling device or controller. This controller is what gives you the ability to adjust the sound for everything. From your start menu, go to your control panel. Then, go to add hardware and search for the hardware yourself. Don't let the computer search for it automatically, because if it is improperly installed it may not be seen. Then, scroll down to sound devices and search for your audio controller. Check the properties of the device, and see if it is installed properly. If it isn't installed properly you will see a yellow highlighted question mark beside the device's name
•    The best way to solve this problem is to uninstall your sound card and drivers. You will reboot, enter the bios, disable the onboard audio, game port, and midi. Then boot back into windows, go to add remove programs and make sure that any programs for the device was removed.
Next, you should reinstall the sound card and drivers. It is possible driver updates have been made since the sound card was manufactured and released, so it is a good idea to visit the manufacturer's site and see if there are driver updates. Once you do this, restart the computer again. The problem is (more than likely) the default device in audio properties is still the onboard, you can select the creative devices and it will probably work, but it will be better to disable the onboard all together.
Uninstalling and reinstalling the sound card will more than likely fix your problem.
Other troubleshooting tips
If you are still experiencing difficulties, try these other troubleshooting ideas.
•    If you think your sound card may be 'dead', before buying a new one, I would recommend borrowing one that is fully functioning from a friend, if possible, and installing that one to see if the error is in the card itself.

•    Try using a different PCi slot, that way windows may detect it as new instead of trying to reconfigure it on the slots its currently on. This can also help you to determine whether one of the slots are bad.
•    If you have an onboard sound card but are trying to use a sound card you bought separately, ensure the onboard one is disabled.
Always ensure the sound card you purchase is compatible with your board. If it doesn’t say on the packaging, do a little research online prior to the purchase.

Years ago, home burglar alarms were only found with rich homes. These days however, the prices have dropped and they are becoming more common with homes of average folk. A lot of people who invest in burglar systems go for the do it yourself systems. They can be wired or wireless, setting off an alarm when an intruder attempts to break in or when they are moving around inside of your house. With home burglar alarms, there are two types - open and closed circuit. Open circuit systems work by setting off an alarm when the circuit closes. When a window or a door is opened, the circuit is immediately completed and the alarm goes off. Closed circuit systems work the opposite way. When a window or door is opened, the circuit is broken - also setting off the alarm. Another, more sophisticated option, are motion sensors. Motion sensors sense any type of motion within a certain radius to the sensor. Once it has sensed any motion, it sends a signal out to the control panel that will analyze it and see if the movement is considered suspicious. If the movement is indeed considered suspicious, it will react to the way you have it set up and inform the proper authorities or sound the alarm. Motion sensors can also be adjusted as well. You can adjust them for things such as pets walking around or any other activity that is common with your home that wouldn’t signify a burglary taking place. Motion sensor alarms are very common these days, and one of the best ways to keep your home safe from a burglar - and give you peace of mind in knowing that you are protected. Normally, it’s a good idea to use motion sensors and magnetic switches with your burglar alarm setup. Magnetic switches will protect doors and windows while the motion sensors will help to protect larger rooms, such as living rooms and hallways. The combination of the two is never a bad idea - and will go a long way in protecting your home. Another available option that you have is a security camera. Video cameras are also common these days, and can be mounted in very strategic areas throughout the parameter of your home. They will pick up images in the area they are mounted, which will be displayed on the monitor. You can also record the video to a videotape as well, making it an ideal choice for anyone who wants to keep track of the information that the camera picks up. You can also get a burglar system from a home security company as well. Most companies monitor their systems remotely, and always have someone in the office to look after the system. Once the alarm is set off, the company will immediately inform the local police or send their own security personnel out to your home. This way, night or day, no matter where you go, your home will always be protected. Investing in a burglary system of any type is always a smart investment. You have several different to choose from, depending on your needs. If you’ve been worried about your home and the things you keep inside your home, you should invest in a burglary system. They will help you keep peace of mind, and know that you are protected. They don’t cost that much either, which makes them an even better investment. If you own a home - you shouldn’t hesitate to invest in a burglary system.
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Change.org was hacked late Friday by someone who made "cosmetic" changes on the popular petition website, officials said.
No personal information was stolen, spokesman Benjamin Joffe-Walt said in a written statement. He added that none of the 12 petitions targeted had its number of signatures affected.
The modified petitions included one calling for officials to end the prosecution of a Florida teen charged in connection with a same-sex relationship with a 14-year-old; a petition to close the detention center at Guantanamo Bay; and a petition to allow gay Boy Scouts leaders, said Brianna Cayo-Cotter, a spokeswoman for Change.org.
Change.org officials believe the petitions were selected because they were all in a featured section of the website and weren't picked because of the causes they represent, she said.

Website : CNN.com/technology/